What is Endodontics?

Endodontics is the branch of dentistry that focuses on disease and injury of the soft tissue inside of the tooth – the dental pulp.

What Is Root Canal Treatment?

Root canal treatment is a procedure that is done to treat an infection at the centre of the tooth.

The Tooth and Its Structure

The tooth is made up of 2 parts, the crown which is the part of the tooth we can see in our mouths and the roots, the roots extend into the bone of the jaw to anchor the tooth in position.

Our teeth are made up of different structures:

  • Enamel – the hard outer surface
  • Dentine – a softer material which supports the enamel and makes up most of the tooth
  • Cementum – a hard material which covers the roots surface
  • Dental pulp – soft tissue at the centre of the tooth

The root canal system is made up of the dental pulp and this extends from the crown of the tooth right down to the end of the root. A single tooth can have more than one root canal.


Does Root Canal Treatment hurt?

No, anaesthetic is used when Root Canal Treatment is performed. Therefore you shouldn’t feel any pain.

Usually infection is discovered on an x-ray of your teeth. You can have symptoms of infection or in some cases there are no symptoms at all.

  • Pain when eating or drinking hot or cold food and drink
  • Pain when biting or chewing
  • A loose tooth

As infection progresses the symptoms you’ve been experiencing can disappear, this is because of pulpal death. 

In many cases patients then believe that their tooth is fine, but in fact the infection has spread through the root canal system of the tooth.

You then develop further symptoms (and in this case more extreme than the initial symptoms):

  • Pain when biting or chewing returning
  • Swelling of the gum, this is usually near the affected tooth
  • Abscess, pus oozing from a swollen part of your gum
  • A swollen cheek or jaw
  • The tooth darkening in colour

The longer an infected tooth is left untreated, the more likely it is to become unsaveable. The pulp will not heal itself. In some cases you may need an extraction. Large infections can also damage the soft tissues and even the jaw bone.

The only way to treat the infection in the root canal is to remove the bacteria. This can be done by either a Root Canal Treatment or an Extraction. 

Extraction is the worst case scenario.

At SmileBox we will do everything to try and save your natural tooth.

An easy way to describe a root canal treatment is by calling it a glorified filling. You will receive local anaesthetic and then it will feel like you are having a filling. The bacteria is removed from the tooth and the root canal(s) and then your tooth will be restored. We usually recommend placing a crown on a tooth that has had Root Canal Treatment. This is due to the fact they become weaker and are more prone to fracture in future.

Composite veneers and bonding can be more prone to staining compared to natural tooth enamel and other dental materials like ceramic/porcelain. While composite materials are designed to resist staining to some extent, they are not entirely resistant to discolouration.

Several factors can contribute to the staining of composite veneers and bonding:

Composite veneers and bonding can be more prone to staining compared to natural tooth enamel and other dental materials like porcelain. While composite materials used in veneers and bonding are designed to resist staining to some extent, they are not entirely impervious to discolouration.

Several factors can contribute to the staining of composite veneers and bonding:

Diet: Consuming dark-coloured foods and beverages such as coffee, tea, red wine, and

certain berries can lead to staining over time.

Smoking and Tobacco Use: Smoking and using tobacco products can cause significant staining of dental restorations, including composite veneers and bonding.

Oral Hygiene: Inadequate oral hygiene can allow the buildup of plaque and tartar, which can contribute to staining.

Age and Wear: As composite materials age and wear, they may become more susceptible to staining and discolouration.

To minimise the risk of staining, it’s essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices, such as regular brushing and flossing, and to avoid or limit the consumption of staining food/drinnks. Additionally, routine dental examinations and professional cleanings can help prevent staining and ensure the longevity of your composite veneers and bonding. If staining does occur, professional teeth cleaning or replacements may be considered to restore the appearance of the restorations.


Root Canal Treatments are usually performed in 2 appointments, they can sometimes be done in 1 but it depends on each individual case.

Firstly you will have x-rays taken of your teeth, this is to get a clear diagnosis of the infection and for the Endodontist to see how complex the treatment will be. The treatment itself will be done under anaesthetic, so you shouldn’t feel any pain. In some cases, when a tooth dies it loses feeling therefore it may not always be necessary to use any local anaesthetic.

You will then have a rubber sheet (rubber dam) placed around the tooth, this is to ensure the working area stays dry throughout the treatment. This dam also protects you from swallowing any chemicals that the endodontist may use.

The Endodontist will then use a small drill to open the tooth through the crown, this is to access the soft tissue at the centre of your tooth (the pulp).  They’ll then remove any infected pulp that is present. 

After the pulp has been removed, the Endodontist will clean the root canal and make it slightly larger. This is because the root canal(s) of our teeth are very narrow, which can make it very difficult to fill. This process is done by using a range of files, this part of the treatment can take a long time so it may need to be carried out over a number of visits. If you do need to come for several appointments, the Endodontist will more than likely place medication in the cleaned canal(s) in between your dental appointments to kill any remaining bacteria. 

The tooth will be sealed by using a temporary filling.  You may also be given antibiotics to help manage and prevent further infection.

At your next visit the temporary filling is removed along with any medicine or medicated dressings that were placed prior.

The endodontist will ensure the canal(s) are clean and then they will fill the root canal(s) with a material called Gutta Percha. This is then sealed with a filling which prevents reinfection.

In some cases after root canal treatment the tooth may darken, particularly if it has died as a result of an injury like a knock to the tooth.

There are several ways the dentist can treat discolouration, such as whitening the tooth with chemicals. But this can not always be done.

Our front incisors and canine teeth usually only have a single root that contains 1 root canal. The premolars and back molar teeth have 2 or 3 roots which each contain either 1 or 2 root canals.

The more roots a tooth has, the longer your root canal treatment will take.

In about 9 out of 10 cases a tooth can survive for up to 10 years after a Root Canal Treatment.

Dental Crowns are usually recommended to prevent the tooth from fracturing in future.  If there’s only a small amount of tooth remaining after the Root Canal Treatment, you can have a post placed into the root canal which is used to help keep the crown in place.

Root Canal Treatment prices start at 10,000 THB.